Shorthand Systems: Pitman, Teeline & Gregg Shorthand
Introduction To Shorthand Systems
Shorthand is a system of quick handwriting which can be utilized to transcribe the spoken words. Shorthand systems make use of a variety of methods including simplifying existing letters or character types. And also uses unique symbols to represent phonemes, phrases and words.
A brief history of shorthand systems in history
Since the invention of writing, scribes have used various ways to enable them to take down notes very quickly and efficiently.
The Ancient Egyptians devised two scripts, Hieratic and Demotic. These are devised as alternatives with their complex Hieroglyphic script. It was mainly used for monumental inscriptions. Both Hieratic and Demotic have same principles as the Hieroglyphs. However the symbols were substantially simplified.
During the 4th hundred years BC, the Greeks devised numerous symbol systems. They decreased letters to an individual stroke. That could also be utilized to symbolize common words, prefixes and suffixes. Such systems are usually known as stenography (narrow composing), brachygraphy (brief composing) or tachygraphy (swift composing). Their purpose was to make writing more compact sized and/or faster.
One shorthand system favored by the Romans was Tironian Notes or Notae Tironianae. It was invented by Cicero’s secretary Tiro. He used it to record Cicero’s speeches. It used a mixture of simplified letters and particular symbols and was found in Europe in a variety of forms until the Middle Ages.
Han Dynasty (207BC – 220AD)
In Han Dynasty (207BC – 220AD), the Chinese devised two ways of rapid writing referred to as xíngshu (running script) and caoshu (draft script). a few of the strokes that make up characters are combined & others are Ignored in the running script . each character is written with an single continues stroke in Draft script. And, There is usually substantial variation in how that is done. Consequently, the Draft script is quite difficult to learn without special training. Efforts have been made to standardize what sort of characters are created in the Draft script. However they have not really met with well-known acclaim.
Modern shorthand systems
There are a variety of different shorthand systems presently used. The most popular types include:
Pitman Shorthand was invented by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813-1897). It was initially published in 1837. Through the years it has been steadily improved. It has been adapted for 15 different languages across the globe. This was widely used in UK and USA. It is mostly used by secretaries, reporters and authors. However, it lost recognition with the invention of pocket tape recorders.
1. Notable features of Pitman Shorthand
Pitman is a phonetic shorthand system. It records the sounds of speech instead of the spelling. For instance, the sound [f] in Form, elephant and tough is written in same way for each word. Vowel sounds are optional. So they are written with little dots, dashes or other shapes following to the primary strokes. This can help increase writing speed. It is because most of the words can be recognized from their consonants.
The thickness, placement of the strokes & length are very significant in pitman shorthand.
To improve writing speed of pitman, There are numerous special abbreviations and various other tricks are used.
In 1922, Using Pitman shorthand, Nathan Behrin wrote with a speed of 350 wpm in a two-minute test .
2. ‘Translation’ of above Pitman Shorthand Script
All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
(Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights)
Gregg shorthand was invented by John Robert Gregg (1867-1948). It was initially published in 1888. Since that time many different variations have made an appearance. It includes some for languages apart from English. Gregg continues to be used, particularly in U.S.
1. Notable features of Gregg Shorthand
Gregg Shorthand is certainly phonetic. Instead of the spelling, It records sounds of speech . For instance, the audio [f] in Form, elephant and Tough is written just as for each word. And, Vowels are created as hooks and circles on the consonants.
Teeline is a shorthand system developed in 1968 by James Hill. He was an instructor of Pitman Shorthand. It was approved by the National Council. It was used to train working Journalists. National Council certifies the training of journalists in UK.
It is mainly utilized in the Commonwealth. However, it can be adapted for make use of by Germanic languages such as for example German and Swedish. Its strength over other types of shorthand is usually fast learning, and speeds. Speeds as high as 150 words for each and every minute are feasible. Users of Teeline Shorthand may able to produce their own word groupings, thus by increasing their speed.
Teeline differs from many shorthand systems by basing itself on the alphabet instead of phonetics. Making it simpler to learn when compared with other shorthand systems. However, it also carrying the speed limitations of the alphabet when compared with other shorthand systems.
Writing design of TeeLine?
Teeline shorthand is a streamlined method. It helps to transcribe the spoken words very quickly. This was done by detaching unnecessary letters from words and building the letters themselves faster to create.Vowels tend to be removed when they aren’t the 1st or last letter of a word. And, silent letters are also ignored. Common prefixes, suffixes, and letter groupings (such as for example “sh” and “ing”) are reduced to single symbols. The symbols themselves derive from the aged cursive forms of the letter. Further, the not needed parts are once again stripped leaving just the core of the letter remaining. Unlike phonetics based shorthands, such as for example Pitman, Teeline shorthand is a spelling based system.
1. Research the Teeline alphabet.
The alphabet uses curves and strokes to represent letters in the English alphabets. It generally does not make use of phonics like pitman & gregg shorthand methods. Rather, it uses different symbols to represent certain letters. The majority of the letters are represented by a curve or stroke that’s in the English letter. It is like a “v” form for “A.”
You could find the Teeline shorthand alphabet here: althandwriting
2. Keep only the fundamental vowels and consonants in words.
In Teeline shorthand, you omit silent consonants, dual consonants, and vowels that are not needed. You keep just vowels at the start of a word and also at the end of a word.
For example, the term “LAMB” will be written as “LM.”
“COMMA” will be written while “CMA,”
“ABOUT” is normally written like that “ABT,”
and “LIGHT” is usually written as “LT.”
If you were composing a sentence in Teeline like, “It is best to remember to take down notes in class,” it might be created as, “U shld alwys rmbr t tk nts in cls.”
3. Write vowels smaller sized than consonants.
In Teeline shorthand, the vowels show up a bit smaller compared to the consonants on the page. This helps you to easily identify the vowels from the consonants.
For example, Lets assume you are interested to write the word “COMMA”. In Teeline shorthand, you’ll write the “C” and the “M” in a normal size and the “A” in a smaller sized letter.
4. Join consonants together.
Make an effort to write consonants in a single to two strokes without lifting your pen. Keep the first letter clear. And add on another letter so they form one symbol. This can make your shorthand writing considerably faster.
For example, you may join “b” with “d” by starting with the symbol of “b”. And adding a horizontal line on the “b” to note the “d.”
Shorthand is a way of speed-writing system where you substitute symbolic for an audio or a letter. It really is a terrific way to take down notes fast, whether you are jotting down your ideas during a course or producing notes during an interview. There are three common ways of composing shorthand: the Teeline technique, the Pitman technique, and the Gregg technique. After you have practiced a way of shorthand, you can improve your technique by firmly taking a course on shorthand or by employing a tutor who’s well-versed in shorthand composing. It is also called as stenography.
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
Average rating / 5. Vote count:
No votes so far! Be the first to rate this post.